Holmatov B & Hoekstra AY (2020), 'The environmental footprint of transport by car using renewable energy', Earth's Future, 8, e2019EF001428. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EF001428.
Open access: This is a gold open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License and has been deposited on Zenodo.
Abstract: Replacing fossil fuels in the transport sector by renewable energy will help combat climate change. However, lowering greenhouse gas emissions by switching to alternative fuels or electricity can come at the expense of land and water resources. To understand the scale of this possible tradeoff we compare and contrast carbon, land and water footprints per driven km in midsize cars utilizing conventional gasoline, biofuels, bioelectricity, solar electricity and solar‐based hydrogen. Results show that solar‐powered electric cars have the smallest environmental footprints per km, followed by solar‐based hydrogen cars, and that biofuel‐driven cars have the largest footprints.